Map of the Mediterranean and Arab world, ca. 600–750 C.E. (with modern countries superimposed)
“After fighting three battles with the Romans, the Muslims conquered them. So when the chief men of the city saw these things, they went to Amr, and received a certificate of security for the city, that it might not be plundered. This kind of treaty which Muhammad, the chief of the Arabs, taught them, they called the Law; and he says with regard to it: “As for the province of Egypt and any city that agrees with its inhabitants to pay the land-tax to you and to submit to your authority, make a treaty with them, and do them no injury. But plunder and take as prisoners those that will not consent to this and resist you.” For this reason the Muslims kept their hands off the province and its inhabitants, but destroyed the nation of the Romans, and their general who was named Marianus. And those of the Romans who escaped fled to Alexandria, and shut its gates upon the Arabs, and fortified themselves within the city.”
“And in the year 360 of Diocletian [i.e. 644 C.E.], in the month of December, three years after Amr had taken possession of Memphis, the Muslims captured the city of Alexandria, and destroyed its walls, and burnt many churches with fire. And they burnt the church of Saint Mark, which was built by the sea, where his body was laid; and this was the place to which the father and patriarch, Peter the Martyr, went before his martyrdom, and blessed Saint Mark, and committed to him his reasonable flock, as he had received it. So they burnt this place and the monasteries around it….”
Sawirus ibn al-Muqaffa, History of the Patriarchs of the Coptic Church of Alexandria, ca. 1080 C.E.
Which of the following best characterizes the split between Sunni and Shia Muslims during the time period after the death of Muhammad?
|(A)||A disagreement about the rightful successor to Muhammad’s rule|
|(B)||A disagreement about the best location for pilgrimage activities in Mecca|
|(C)||A disagreement about the legal status of women within Islam|
|(D)||A disagreement about the Muslim theological understanding of God|