World History

Source 1:

“The case of a broken thigh is analogous to that of the arm, but in particular, a fractured thigh is mostly deranged forwards and outwards, for the bone is naturally flattened on those sides. It is to be set by the hands, with ligatures, and even cords applied, the one above and the other below the fracture. When the fracture takes place at one end, if at the head of the thigh, the middle part of a thong wrapped round with wool, so that it may not cut the parts there, is to be applied to the perineum, and the ends of it brought up to the head and given to an assistant to hold, and applying a ligature below the fracture, we give the ends of it to another assistant to make extension. If it is fractured near the knee, we apply the ligature immediately above the fracture, and give the ends to an assistant, with which to make extension upwards; and while we put a ligature round the knee to secure it, and while the patient lies thus, with his leg extended, we arrange the fracture.”

Paul of Aegina, Epitome: On the Fracture of the Thigh and Nose, late seventh century C.E.

Source 2:

“Medicine considers the human body as to the means by which it is cured and by which it is driven away from health. The knowledge of anything, since all things have causes, is not acquired or complete unless it is known by its causes. Therefore in medicine we ought to know the causes of sickness and health. And because health and sickness and their causes are sometimes manifest, and sometimes hidden and not to be comprehended except by the study of symptoms, we must also study the symptoms of health and disease. Now it is established in the sciences that no knowledge is acquired save through the study of its causes and beginnings, if it has had causes and beginnings; nor completed except by knowledge of its accidents and accompanying essentials.”

Ibn Sina (Avicenna), On Medicine, ca. 1020 C.E.

Which of the following characterizes both of the passages?

(A) A reliance upon supernatural understandings of physical phenomena
(B) A reliance upon reason and rationalistic understandings of physical phenomena
(C) A reliance upon abstract philosophical understandings of physical phenomena
(D) A reliance upon astrological understandings of physical phenomena
  1. Correct Answer: B

    Explanation:

    Well before the Enlightenment, Byzantine and Arab scholars began to move away from supernatural understandings of science and medicine in favor of more pragmatic, rational, and reason-based explanations of physical phenomena. These two passages contain no supernatural explanations, (A), no philosophical discussions, (C), and no astrological discussions, (D). You’re left with (B), which is the best answer.

Test ID: 1151
Source: AP World History Practice Tests