World History

Source 1

Reconstruction of the Aztec Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

Source 2:

“This great city contains a large number of temples, or houses, for their idols, very handsome edifices, which are situated in the different districts and the suburbs; in the principal ones religious persons of each particular sect are constantly residing, for whose use, besides the houses containing the idols, there are other convenient habitations. All these persons dress in black, and never cut or comb their hair from the time they enter the priesthood until they leave it; and all the sons of the principal inhabitants, both nobles and respectable citizens, are placed in the temples and wear the same dress from the age of seven or eight years until they are taken out to be married; which occurs more frequently with the first-born who inherit estates than with the others. The priests are debarred from female society, nor is any woman permitted to enter the religious houses. They also abstain from eating certain kinds of food, more at some seasons of the year than others.

Among these temples there is one which far surpasses all the rest, whose grandeur of architectural details no human tongue is able to describe; for within its precincts, surrounded by a lofty wall, there is room enough for a town of five hundred families. Around the interior of the enclosure there are handsome edifices, containing large halls and corridors, in which the religious persons attached to the temple reside. There are fully forty towers, which are lofty and well built, the largest of which has fifty steps leading to its main body, and is higher than the tower of the principal tower of the church at Seville. The stone and wood of which they are constructed are so well wrought in every part, that nothing could be better done, for the interior of the chapels containing the idols consists of curious imagery, wrought in stone, with plaster ceilings, and wood-work carved in relief, and painted with figures of monsters and other objects. All these towers are the burial places of the nobles, and every chapel in them is dedicated to a particular idol, to which they pay their devotions.”

Hernan Cortés, Second Letter to Charles V, ca. 1520

Which of the following was an Aztec practice that took place at temples, such as that depicted in Source 1, and highly disturbed the Spanish conquistadors?

(A) Human sacrifice
(B) Grain storage
(C) Burial rites
(D) Trade and commerce
World History


Cuneiform tablet containing an administrative account of barley distribution, ca. 3100-2900 B.C.E.

The writing form depicted in the image above illustrates which of the following advances in human civilization?

(A) The ability of the Sumerians to create published texts that were widely available to the masses
(B) The ability of the Sumerians to organize their society more effectively by keeping written records of economic transactions
(C) The ability of the Sumerians to travel to other parts of the world using advanced wagon-wheel technology
(D) The ability of the Sumerians to domesticate wild animals for human use
World History

What city served as a repository for Hellenistic culture in the time of the Roman Republic and Empire, until its library was burned down?

(A) Carthage
(B) Kiev
(C) Jerusalem
(D) Baghdad
(E) Alexandria
World History

Japanese emperors are traditionally seen by the Japanese people as:

(A) The emissaries of celestial spirits on Earth
(B) Descendants of Amaterasu
(C) Nature spirits in flesh
(D) Warrior-Lords upon whom they rely on for protection
(E) Rulers by virtue of the military successes of their ancestors.
World History

The beginning of Nikita Khrushchev’s rule in the Soviet Union makes a drastic in change in Soviet foreign policy, from an aggressive and direct expansion of communism under Stalin into what?

(A) Peaceful Coexistence
(B) Detente
(C) Glasnost
(D) MAD
(E) Perestroika
World History

What battle in the 7th century halted the Muslim advance and preserved Christian Europe?

(A) The Battle of Tours
(B) The Battle of Manresa
(C) The Fall of Granada
(D)  The Battle of Lepanto
(E) The Capture of Acre
World History

Under whom did the Aztecs reach the peak of their empire’s extent before being defeated by the Spanish?

(A) Montezuma II
(B) Huayna Capac
(C) Teotlalco
(D) Itzcoatl
(E) Ahuitzotl
World History

Source 1:

“The case of a broken thigh is analogous to that of the arm, but in particular, a fractured thigh is mostly deranged forwards and outwards, for the bone is naturally flattened on those sides. It is to be set by the hands, with ligatures, and even cords applied, the one above and the other below the fracture. When the fracture takes place at one end, if at the head of the thigh, the middle part of a thong wrapped round with wool, so that it may not cut the parts there, is to be applied to the perineum, and the ends of it brought up to the head and given to an assistant to hold, and applying a ligature below the fracture, we give the ends of it to another assistant to make extension. If it is fractured near the knee, we apply the ligature immediately above the fracture, and give the ends to an assistant, with which to make extension upwards; and while we put a ligature round the knee to secure it, and while the patient lies thus, with his leg extended, we arrange the fracture.”

Paul of Aegina, Epitome: On the Fracture of the Thigh and Nose, late seventh century C.E.

Source 2:

“Medicine considers the human body as to the means by which it is cured and by which it is driven away from health. The knowledge of anything, since all things have causes, is not acquired or complete unless it is known by its causes. Therefore in medicine we ought to know the causes of sickness and health. And because health and sickness and their causes are sometimes manifest, and sometimes hidden and not to be comprehended except by the study of symptoms, we must also study the symptoms of health and disease. Now it is established in the sciences that no knowledge is acquired save through the study of its causes and beginnings, if it has had causes and beginnings; nor completed except by knowledge of its accidents and accompanying essentials.”

Ibn Sina (Avicenna), On Medicine, ca. 1020 C.E.

Which of the following characterizes both of the passages?

(A) A reliance upon supernatural understandings of physical phenomena
(B) A reliance upon reason and rationalistic understandings of physical phenomena
(C) A reliance upon abstract philosophical understandings of physical phenomena
(D) A reliance upon astrological understandings of physical phenomena
World History

Which was the primary cash crop of the Spanish colonies in the Americas?

(A) Sugar
(B) Pineapple
(C) Tea
(D) Coffee
(E) Pepper
World History

Source 1

Reconstruction of the Aztec Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

Source 2:

“This great city contains a large number of temples, or houses, for their idols, very handsome edifices, which are situated in the different districts and the suburbs; in the principal ones religious persons of each particular sect are constantly residing, for whose use, besides the houses containing the idols, there are other convenient habitations. All these persons dress in black, and never cut or comb their hair from the time they enter the priesthood until they leave it; and all the sons of the principal inhabitants, both nobles and respectable citizens, are placed in the temples and wear the same dress from the age of seven or eight years until they are taken out to be married; which occurs more frequently with the first-born who inherit estates than with the others. The priests are debarred from female society, nor is any woman permitted to enter the religious houses. They also abstain from eating certain kinds of food, more at some seasons of the year than others.

Among these temples there is one which far surpasses all the rest, whose grandeur of architectural details no human tongue is able to describe; for within its precincts, surrounded by a lofty wall, there is room enough for a town of five hundred families. Around the interior of the enclosure there are handsome edifices, containing large halls and corridors, in which the religious persons attached to the temple reside. There are fully forty towers, which are lofty and well built, the largest of which has fifty steps leading to its main body, and is higher than the tower of the principal tower of the church at Seville. The stone and wood of which they are constructed are so well wrought in every part, that nothing could be better done, for the interior of the chapels containing the idols consists of curious imagery, wrought in stone, with plaster ceilings, and wood-work carved in relief, and painted with figures of monsters and other objects. All these towers are the burial places of the nobles, and every chapel in them is dedicated to a particular idol, to which they pay their devotions.”

Hernan Cortés, Second Letter to Charles V, ca. 1520

Cortés’ numerous references to “idols” in Source 2 illustrates which of the following conflicts between the Spanish conquistadors and the peoples of the New World?

(A) Spanish monotheism versus Aztec polytheism
(B) Spanish capitalism versus Aztec communalism
(C) Spanish authoritarianism versus Aztec ethnocentrism
(D) Spanish hedonism versus Aztec intellectualism