World History

Under whose reign did the Koreans develop their own written language and strengthened Confucianism’s influence in Korea?

(A) Anjang
(B) Pyeongwon
(C) Taejong
(D) Yejong
(E) Sejong
World History

“Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if no social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. The freedom which we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks which cannot fail to be offensive, although they inflict no positive penalty. But all this ease in our private relations does not make us lawless as citizens. Against this fear is our chief safeguard, teaching us to obey the magistrates and the laws, particularly such as regard the protection of the injured, whether they are actually on the statute book, or belong to that code which, although unwritten, yet cannot be broken without acknowledged disgrace.”

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, ca. 415 B.C.E.

Which of the following correctly describes one of the primary reasons that Greek culture was disseminated widely around the Mediterranean region during the time period represented by the passage?

(A) The geography of Greece contains many natural resources that facilitated a profitable mining industry.
(B) The geography of Greece contains numerous freshwater lakes that facilitated a successful fishing industry.
(C) The geography of Greece contains prominent river valleys that facilitated widespread agriculture.
(D) The geography of Greece contains many natural harbors that facilitated trade and commerce.
World History

Which of the following men were not influenced by Enlightenment thinking in Europe?

A. Toussant L’Ouverture
B. Benjamin Franklin
C. Ferdinand of Aragon
D. Simon Bolivar
E. Voltaire
World History

In the 1960s, the United Kingdom repeatedly applied for membership in the European Economic Community, but was constantly vetoed by this leader, who believed that the UK was an agent of American interests in Europe.

A. Konrad Adenauer
B. Nikita Khrushchev
C. Charles de Gaulle
D. Josip Tito
E. François Mitterand
World History

Source 1

Reconstruction of the Aztec Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

Source 2:

“This great city contains a large number of temples, or houses, for their idols, very handsome edifices, which are situated in the different districts and the suburbs; in the principal ones religious persons of each particular sect are constantly residing, for whose use, besides the houses containing the idols, there are other convenient habitations. All these persons dress in black, and never cut or comb their hair from the time they enter the priesthood until they leave it; and all the sons of the principal inhabitants, both nobles and respectable citizens, are placed in the temples and wear the same dress from the age of seven or eight years until they are taken out to be married; which occurs more frequently with the first-born who inherit estates than with the others. The priests are debarred from female society, nor is any woman permitted to enter the religious houses. They also abstain from eating certain kinds of food, more at some seasons of the year than others.

Among these temples there is one which far surpasses all the rest, whose grandeur of architectural details no human tongue is able to describe; for within its precincts, surrounded by a lofty wall, there is room enough for a town of five hundred families. Around the interior of the enclosure there are handsome edifices, containing large halls and corridors, in which the religious persons attached to the temple reside. There are fully forty towers, which are lofty and well built, the largest of which has fifty steps leading to its main body, and is higher than the tower of the principal tower of the church at Seville. The stone and wood of which they are constructed are so well wrought in every part, that nothing could be better done, for the interior of the chapels containing the idols consists of curious imagery, wrought in stone, with plaster ceilings, and wood-work carved in relief, and painted with figures of monsters and other objects. All these towers are the burial places of the nobles, and every chapel in them is dedicated to a particular idol, to which they pay their devotions.”

Hernan Cortés, Second Letter to Charles V, ca. 1520

Which of the following describes the primary motivation of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire?

(A) A desire to convert native populations to European cultural practices
(B) A desire to establish trade networks in South America
(C) A desire to establish permanent agricultural lands
(D) A desire to acquire gold and spices
World History

Who was the man responsible for founding the modern Turkish state in the wake of the Ottoman Empire’s collapse?

(A) Mustafa Renda
(B) Mustafa Ataturk
(C) Fahri Koruturk
(D) Suleyman Demirel
(E) Cevdet Sunay
World History

What facilitated the exchange of goods between the orient and the west in the middle ages up to the early renaissance?

(A) Pax Romana
(B) The Mongolian Rule over Eurasia
(C) Arabian domination of North Africa
(D) Russian trade routes
(E) British ports in East Asia
World History

What was the primary grain of the Mesoamerican civilizations?

A. Maize
B. Rice
C. Wheat
D. Barley
E.  Rye
World History

Source 1:

Map of the Mediterranean and Arab world, ca. 600–750 C.E. (with modern countries superimposed)

Source 2:
“After fighting three battles with the Romans, the Muslims conquered them. So when the chief men of the city saw these things, they went to Amr, and received a certificate of security for the city, that it might not be plundered. This kind of treaty which Muhammad, the chief of the Arabs, taught them, they called the Law; and he says with regard to it: “As for the province of Egypt and any city that agrees with its inhabitants to pay the land-tax to you and to submit to your authority, make a treaty with them, and do them no injury. But plunder and take as prisoners those that will not consent to this and resist you.” For this reason the Muslims kept their hands off the province and its inhabitants, but destroyed the nation of the Romans, and their general who was named Marianus. And those of the Romans who escaped fled to Alexandria, and shut its gates upon the Arabs, and fortified themselves within the city.”

“And in the year 360 of Diocletian [i.e. 644 C.E.], in the month of December, three years after Amr had taken possession of Memphis, the Muslims captured the city of Alexandria, and destroyed its walls, and burnt many churches with fire. And they burnt the church of Saint Mark, which was built by the sea, where his body was laid; and this was the place to which the father and patriarch, Peter the Martyr, went before his martyrdom, and blessed Saint Mark, and committed to him his reasonable flock, as he had received it. So they burnt this place and the monasteries around it….”

Sawirus ibn al-Muqaffa, History of the Patriarchs of the Coptic Church of Alexandria, ca. 1080 C.E.

Which of the following is a major difference between early Christian and early Muslim beliefs?

(A) A belief in one god
(B) A belief in the divinity of Jesus
(C) A belief in proselytization
(D) A belief in the importance of charity
World History

“Upon their arrival they were honorably and graciously received by the grand Khan, in a full assembly of his principal officers. When they drew nigh to his person, they paid their respects by prostrating themselves on the floor. He immediately commanded them to rise, and to relate to him the circumstances of their travels, with all that had taken place in their negotiation with his holiness the pope. To their narrative, which they gave in the regular order of events, and delivered in perspicuous language, he listened with attentive silence. The letters and the presents from pope Gregory were then laid before him, and, upon hearing the former read, he bestowed much commendation on the fidelity, the zeal, and the diligence of his ambassadors; and receiving with due reverence the oil from the holy sepulchre, he gave directions that it should be preserved with religious care. Upon his observing Marco Polo, and inquiring who he was, Nicolo made answer, This is your servant, and my son; upon which the grand Khan replied, “He is welcome, and it pleases me much,” and he caused him to be enrolled amongst his attendants of honor. And on account of their return he made a great feast and rejoicing; and as long as the said brothers and Marco remained in the court of the grand Khan, they were honored even above his own courtiers. Marco was held in high estimation and respect by all belonging to the court. He learnt in a short time and adopted the manners of the Tartars, and acquired a proficiency in four different languages, which he became qualified to read and write.”

Marco Polo’s Travels, ca. 1300 C.E.

The encounter described in the account above illustrates which of the following?

(A) The economic dominance of the Ottoman Empire
(B) The influence of Middle Eastern religious beliefs on the peoples of South Asia
(C) Amiable cultural exchange between Europe and Asia
(D) A belief in the importance of charity