World History

The following quote best represents the ideas of which thinker?

[The rich] consume little more than the poor, and in spite of their natural selfishness and rapacity…they divide with the poor the produce of all their improvements. They are led by an invisible hand to make nearly the same distribution of the necessaries of life, which would have been made, had the earth been divided into equal portions among all its inhabitants, and thus without intending it, without knowing it, advance the interest of the society, and afford means to the multiplication of the species.

(A) Jean-Jacques Rosseau
(B) Adam Smith
(C) Friedrich Engels
(D) Voltaire
(E) Ricardo
World History

Source 1:

Map of the Mediterranean and Arab world, ca. 600–750 C.E. (with modern countries superimposed)

Source 2:
“After fighting three battles with the Romans, the Muslims conquered them. So when the chief men of the city saw these things, they went to Amr, and received a certificate of security for the city, that it might not be plundered. This kind of treaty which Muhammad, the chief of the Arabs, taught them, they called the Law; and he says with regard to it: “As for the province of Egypt and any city that agrees with its inhabitants to pay the land-tax to you and to submit to your authority, make a treaty with them, and do them no injury. But plunder and take as prisoners those that will not consent to this and resist you.” For this reason the Muslims kept their hands off the province and its inhabitants, but destroyed the nation of the Romans, and their general who was named Marianus. And those of the Romans who escaped fled to Alexandria, and shut its gates upon the Arabs, and fortified themselves within the city.”

“And in the year 360 of Diocletian [i.e. 644 C.E.], in the month of December, three years after Amr had taken possession of Memphis, the Muslims captured the city of Alexandria, and destroyed its walls, and burnt many churches with fire. And they burnt the church of Saint Mark, which was built by the sea, where his body was laid; and this was the place to which the father and patriarch, Peter the Martyr, went before his martyrdom, and blessed Saint Mark, and committed to him his reasonable flock, as he had received it. So they burnt this place and the monasteries around it….”

Sawirus ibn al-Muqaffa, History of the Patriarchs of the Coptic Church of Alexandria, ca. 1080 C.E.

The shaded portions of the map shown in Source 1 indicate which of the following?

(A) The extent of the Roman Empire during its peak geographic reach
(B) The extent of the Byzantine Empire during the years of the Crusades
(C) The extent of the Arab conquest during the years during and after the life of Muhammad
(D) The extent of Sassanid-controlled territory during Persia’s peak geographic reach
World History

The Ottoman Empire employed the use of elite slave soldiers, often taken during childhood from Christian families. What were they called?

A. Hindustans
B. Janissaries
C. Sassanids
D. Rashiduns
E. Fatimids
World History

“Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if no social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. The freedom which we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks which cannot fail to be offensive, although they inflict no positive penalty. But all this ease in our private relations does not make us lawless as citizens. Against this fear is our chief safeguard, teaching us to obey the magistrates and the laws, particularly such as regard the protection of the injured, whether they are actually on the statute book, or belong to that code which, although unwritten, yet cannot be broken without acknowledged disgrace.”

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, ca. 415 B.C.E.

According to the passage, which of the following is a characteristic of classical Greek democracy?

(A) The weighing of individual accomplishment above financial status
(B) The imitation of neighboring states’ laws and principles
(C) The ability of average people to overthrow leaders with whom they disagree
(D) The justice system’s protection of the injured only through explicitly written legal codes
World History

The first samples of ancient Chinese writing, found on crab shells and dating from the Shang dynasty, were used for:

(A) Trading records
(B) Diplomatic messages
(C) Legal records
(D) Poetry and Literature
(E) Prophecies
World History

Which was the primary cash crop of the Spanish colonies in the Americas?

(A) Sugar
(B) Pineapple
(C) Tea
(D) Coffee
(E) Pepper
World History

“Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if no social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. The freedom which we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks which cannot fail to be offensive, although they inflict no positive penalty. But all this ease in our private relations does not make us lawless as citizens. Against this fear is our chief safeguard, teaching us to obey the magistrates and the laws, particularly such as regard the protection of the injured, whether they are actually on the statute book, or belong to that code which, although unwritten, yet cannot be broken without acknowledged disgrace.”

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, ca. 415 B.C.E.

During the time period in which this text was written, who was allowed to participate in the Greek democratic process?

(A) All adult men born within the geographic boundaries of the state
(B)  All adult men and women born within the geographic boundaries of the state
(C) All adult men who were citizens of the state by birth
(D) All adult men and women who were citizens of the state by birth
World History

“Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if no social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. The freedom which we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks which cannot fail to be offensive, although they inflict no positive penalty. But all this ease in our private relations does not make us lawless as citizens. Against this fear is our chief safeguard, teaching us to obey the magistrates and the laws, particularly such as regard the protection of the injured, whether they are actually on the statute book, or belong to that code which, although unwritten, yet cannot be broken without acknowledged disgrace.”

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, ca. 415 B.C.E.

Which of the following correctly describes one of the primary reasons that Greek culture was disseminated widely around the Mediterranean region during the time period represented by the passage?

(A) The geography of Greece contains many natural resources that facilitated a profitable mining industry.
(B) The geography of Greece contains numerous freshwater lakes that facilitated a successful fishing industry.
(C) The geography of Greece contains prominent river valleys that facilitated widespread agriculture.
(D) The geography of Greece contains many natural harbors that facilitated trade and commerce.
World History

Who was the ruler who consolidated rule over China and is considered to be the first true Chinese Emperor?

(A) Qin Er Shi
(B) Shang Di
(C) Qin Shi Huang
(D) Wen Cheng Di
(E) Xiao Jing Di