World History

The Roman Empire first split into two halves, the Eastern Empire and the Western Empire under the rule of whom?

(A) Constantine
(B) Diocletia
(C) Augustus
(D) Hadrian
(E) Trajan
World History

The following quote most represents the ideals of what religion?

“Life is a series of natural and spontaneous changes. Don’t resist them – that only creates sorrow. Let reality be reality. Let things flow naturally forward in whatever way they like.”

(A) Sikhism
(B) Taoism
(C) Buddhism
(D) Shintoism
(E) Confucianism
World History

Source 1:

Map of the Mediterranean and Arab world, ca. 600–750 C.E. (with modern countries superimposed)

Source 2:
“After fighting three battles with the Romans, the Muslims conquered them. So when the chief men of the city saw these things, they went to Amr, and received a certificate of security for the city, that it might not be plundered. This kind of treaty which Muhammad, the chief of the Arabs, taught them, they called the Law; and he says with regard to it: “As for the province of Egypt and any city that agrees with its inhabitants to pay the land-tax to you and to submit to your authority, make a treaty with them, and do them no injury. But plunder and take as prisoners those that will not consent to this and resist you.” For this reason the Muslims kept their hands off the province and its inhabitants, but destroyed the nation of the Romans, and their general who was named Marianus. And those of the Romans who escaped fled to Alexandria, and shut its gates upon the Arabs, and fortified themselves within the city.”

“And in the year 360 of Diocletian [i.e. 644 C.E.], in the month of December, three years after Amr had taken possession of Memphis, the Muslims captured the city of Alexandria, and destroyed its walls, and burnt many churches with fire. And they burnt the church of Saint Mark, which was built by the sea, where his body was laid; and this was the place to which the father and patriarch, Peter the Martyr, went before his martyrdom, and blessed Saint Mark, and committed to him his reasonable flock, as he had received it. So they burnt this place and the monasteries around it….”

Sawirus ibn al-Muqaffa, History of the Patriarchs of the Coptic Church of Alexandria, ca. 1080 C.E.

Which of the following best characterizes the split between Sunni and Shia Muslims during the time period after the death of Muhammad?

(A) A disagreement about the rightful successor to Muhammad’s rule
(B) A disagreement about the best location for pilgrimage activities in Mecca
(C) A disagreement about the legal status of women within Islam
(D) A disagreement about the Muslim theological understanding of God
World History

Who was the man responsible for founding the modern Turkish state in the wake of the Ottoman Empire’s collapse?

(A) Mustafa Renda
(B) Mustafa Ataturk
(C) Fahri Koruturk
(D) Suleyman Demirel
(E) Cevdet Sunay
World History

In the 19th and 20th century, the empire of Austria-Hungary encountered many problems primarily as a result of what?

(A) Nationalism
(B) Economic contraction due to the loss of colonies
(C) Violent Republicanism
(D) Internal difficulties in the monarchy
(E) An influx of immigrants from Eastern Europe
World History

More than any other factor, what helped the Europeans conquer the Americas early on?

(A)  Gunpowder
(B) Disease
(C) Horses
(D) Infighting among the natives
(E) Religion
World History

Which Indian leader was in support of the partitioning of India between its Hindu majority and its Muslim minority in its struggle for independence after World War 2?

A. Muhammad Ali Jinnah
B. Jawaharlal Nehru
C. Indira Gandhi
D. Bhagat Singh
E. Mohandas Gandhi
World History

“Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves. Its administration favors the many instead of the few; this is why it is called a democracy. If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences; if no social standing, advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity, class considerations not being allowed to interfere with merit; nor again does poverty bar the way, if a man is able to serve the state, he is not hindered by the obscurity of his condition. The freedom which we enjoy in our government extends also to our ordinary life. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks which cannot fail to be offensive, although they inflict no positive penalty. But all this ease in our private relations does not make us lawless as citizens. Against this fear is our chief safeguard, teaching us to obey the magistrates and the laws, particularly such as regard the protection of the injured, whether they are actually on the statute book, or belong to that code which, although unwritten, yet cannot be broken without acknowledged disgrace.”

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, ca. 415 B.C.E.

According to the passage, which of the following is a characteristic of classical Greek democracy?

(A) The weighing of individual accomplishment above financial status
(B) The imitation of neighboring states’ laws and principles
(C) The ability of average people to overthrow leaders with whom they disagree
(D) The justice system’s protection of the injured only through explicitly written legal codes
World History

Which European leader’s thoughts are best expressed by the statement below?

“The keystone of the Fascist doctrine is its conception of the State, of its essence, its functions and aims. For Fascism, the state is absolute, individuals and groups relative.”

(A) Josef Stalin
(B) Benito Mussolini
(C) Erich Honecker
(D) Helmut Kohl
(E) Vladimir Lenin